Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with democratic constitution and independent judicial authority protecting the rights and legal interests of the citizens, legal entities and of the state.
Jurisdiction is carried out by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Supreme Administrative Court, appellate, district, military and regional courts. The structure of the prosecutor's office corresponds to the structure of the courts. The Prosecutor General exercises supervision as to legality, and provides methodological guidance regarding the work of all prosecutors.
Once being initiated, a case is to be heard by a court of first instance. If the decision under the first instance case is appealed, a second-instance case is to be initiated. If appealed, it shall be heard by a cassation instance.
THE REGIONAL COURT is the main court of first instance. There are 113 regional courts in Bulgaria.
The Regional Court hears civil, penal, as well administrative-penal cases. It includes matrimonial and labour cases, alimony and adoption cases, claims under commercial and civil cases where the price of the claim is lower than BGN 10,000 and partitions of real property.
THE DISTRICT COURTS are located in the district centres. Their number in Bulgaria is 28. The judicial region of each district court comprises one or more regional courts. The decisions of these courts are subject to appeal before the district court as a court of second instance.
In Bulgaria there are also 28 regional administrative courts hearing administrative cases as first instance courts.
THE APPELLATE COURTS hear cases initiated upon appeals against the decisions of the district court acting as court of first instance. In the country there are 5 appellate courts. They are located in Bourgas, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna and Veliko Tarnovo.
THE MILITARY COURTS hear as court of first instance criminal cases for crimes committed by military men or officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In respect of such cases the court of second instance is the Sofia Military Court of Appeal.
There are two supreme courts in the Republic of Bulgaria (they are situated in Sofia).
THE SUPREME COURT OF CASSATION exercises supreme judicial supervision as to the accurate and equal application of the laws by all courts. It is also the court of last resort for all civil and criminal cases.
THE SUPREME ADMINISTRATIVE COURT performs the same function as the Supreme Court of Cassation, but only in respect of the application of the laws in the administrative jurisdiction. The Supreme Administrative Court rules also on disputes as to the legal conformity of the acts of the Council of Ministers and of the individual ministers